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Direct and Indirect Speech (eBook)

English Speaking
Type: e-book
Genre: Self-Improvement, Education & Language
Language: English
Price: ₹59
(Immediate Access on Full Payment)
Available Formats: PDF, EPUB


Number of Pages: 54
Format: PDF
Dimensions: 8.5 inch x 11 inch
[Paper Size: Letter]

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech
02. Expression of Time
03. Important Reporting Verbs
04. Pronoun Change
05. Tenses in Direct and Indirect Speech
06. Reporting Verb with Object
07. Changing Modal Verbs
08. ‘Questions’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
09. ‘Exclamations’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
10. ‘Imperatives’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
11. Direct and Indirect Speech: Mixed Types
12. Where to Put Reporting Verb in Direct Speech
13. Punctuation Rules
14. Other Useful Notes
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech

There are two ways to express what someone else has said. On this basis, sentences are of two types: sentences with Direct Speech, and sentences with Indirect Speech

Direct Speech is also called Quoted Speech or Direct Narration.
Direct Speech refers exactly what someone has said.
Direct Speech appears within quotation marks (“..”). A comma is used before starting the exact quote within the quotation marks.
Direct Speech should be word for word.
The first letter of the quotation begins with a capital letter.
Example: The president said, “I will not bear corruption in the country at any cost.”

Indirect speech is also called Reported Speech or Indirect Narration.
Indirect Speech does not refer to exactly what someone has said.
Indirect Speech doesn't appear within quotation marks but the word “that” may be used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech.
Indirect Speech shouldn’t be word for word.
The pronoun in Indirect Speech is changed according to speaker and hearer.
Example: The president declared that he would not bear corruption in the country at any cost.

Important rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech are as follows:

02. Expression of Time

You need to change the expression of a time when changing direct speech (DS) into indirect speech (IDS) to match the moment of speaking. Important expressions of time in direct and indirect speech are as follows:

‘a month ago’ is changed into ‘a month before’
‘a year ago’ is changed into ‘the previous year’ or ‘a year before’
‘last night’ is changed into ‘the night before’
‘last Saturday’ is changed into ‘the Saturday before’
‘last weekend’ is changed into ‘the weekend before’
‘next year’ is changed into ‘the following year’ or ‘the year after’
‘now’ is changed into ‘then’
‘the day after tomorrow’ is changed into ‘in two days time’
‘the day before yesterday’ is changed into ‘two days before’
‘these (days)’ is changed into ‘those (days)’
‘this (morning/noon/evening)’ is changed into ‘that (morning/noon/evening)’
‘today’ is changed into ‘that day’
‘tomorrow’ is changed into ‘the next/following day’ or ‘the day after’
‘tonight’ is changed into ‘that night’
‘yesterday’ is changed into ‘the previous day’ or ‘the day before’

Besides expressions of time, there are many other expressions that need to be changed if you are changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.
‘come’ is changed into ‘go’
‘bring’ is changed into ‘take’
‘thus’ is changed into ‘so’
‘hence’ is changed into ‘thence’
‘hither’ is changed into ‘thither’
‘here’ is changed into ‘there’

About the Author

Manik Joshi was born on January 26, 1979, at Ranikhet, a picturesque town in the Kumaon region of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. He is a permanent resident of the Sheeshmahal area of Kathgodam located in the city of Haldwani in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand in India. He completed his schooling in four different schools. He is a science graduate in the ZBC – zoology, botany, and chemistry – subjects. He is also an MBA with a specialization in marketing. Additionally, he holds diplomas in “computer applications”, “multimedia and web-designing”, and “computer hardware and networking”. During his schooldays, he wanted to enter the field of medical science; however, after graduation, he shifted his focus to the field of management. After obtaining his MBA, he enrolled in a computer education center; he became so fascinated with working on the computer that he decided to develop his career in this field. Over the following years, he worked at some computer-related full-time jobs. Following that, he became interested in Internet Marketing, particularly in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web design (creating websites), and various other online jobs. However, later he shifted his focus solely to self-publishing. Manik is a nature-lover. He has always been fascinated by overcast skies. He is passionate about traveling and enjoys solo travel most of the time rather than traveling in groups. He is actually quite a loner who prefers to do his own thing. He likes to listen to music, particularly when he is working on the computer. Reading and writing are definitely his favorite pastimes, but he has no interest in sports. Manik has always dreamt of a prosperous life and prefers to live a life of luxury. He has a keen interest in politics because he believes it is politics that decides everything else. He feels a sense of gratification sharing his experiences and knowledge with the outside world. However, he is an introvert by nature and thus gives prominence to only a few people in his personal life. He is not a spiritual man, yet he actively seeks knowledge about the metaphysical world; he is particularly interested in learning about life beyond death. In addition to writing academic/informational text and fictional content, he also maintains a personal diary. He has always had a desire to stand out from the crowd. He does not believe in treading the beaten path and avoids copying someone else’s path to success. Two things he always refrains from are smoking and drinking; he is a teetotaler and very health-conscious. He usually wakes up before the sun rises. He starts his morning with meditation and exercise. Fitness is an integral and indispensable part of his life. He gets energized by solving complex problems. He loves himself the way he is and he loves the way he looks. He doesn’t believe in following fashion trends. He dresses according to what suits him and what he is comfortable in. He believes in taking calculated risks. His philosophy is to expect the best but prepare for the worst. According to him, you can’t succeed if you are unwilling to fail. For Manik, life is about learning from mistakes and figuring out how to move forward.

Book Details

Publisher: Manik Joshi
Number of Pages: 54
Availability: Available for Download (e-book)

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